Ambazonia's Sovereignty

Here is a list of internationally valid treaties, laws, resolutions, declarations, historic facts, court judgments etc. which constitute Ambazonia’s sovereignty as a state, nation and country. This list is long, but the main thing remains that both Ambazonia and Cameroun emancipate mentally, economically and legally from any foreign neo-colonizer, be it the British, the French, the Germans, the Chinese, the Americans, ... whoever. For that knowing the historic facts written below is important, but realizing that Ambazonians and Camerounese have a precolonial history and a non-colonial future too, is more important!

 

  • Ambazonia is the present name for the country which was once described as The United Nations Trust Territory of Southern Cameroons Under The United Kingdom Administration.

  • Ambazonians have come under continuing colonial domination for over one and a half centuries: British from 1858 to 1887, German from 1888 to 1914, British again from 1914 to 1961, and La “Republique” du Cameroun since 1961;

  • Ambazonian territory was administered by Britain from 1914 to 1922 as conquered territory of an enemy belligerent, Germany; from 1922 to 1946 as a League of Nations Mandated Territory; and from 1946 to 1961 as a United Nations Trust Territory;

  • Britain administered the territory as though it formed part of its adjacent territory of Nigeria; 

  • In 1953, after thirty-eight years of administrative union with Nigeria as part of the Eastern Region of that country, the Southern Cameroons exited Nigeria and became a self-governing territory but remained connected to Nigeria until 30 September 1960;

  • By 1954 the territory of Southern Cameroons had established an autonomous parliamentary system of government.

  • Southern Cameroons (Ambazonia) was a self-governing entity between 1954-1961, had a different political future and conducted the first democratic elections in Africa in 1959;

  • In the memorandum (T/1393 of 27th June 1958) the United Kingdom, the Administering Authority, informed the United Nations that the territory was ripe for independence and that since it was being administered as part of Nigeria, arrangements be made to terminate the trusteeship on or about the same time as the independence of Nigeria on 1 October 1960.

  • On the 27th of June 1958 the British Government submitted to the United Nations a document, Memorandum T/1393, in which it assured the World Body that the Southern Cameroons had not been delayed in its political evolution towards full autonomy and independence;

  • Eighteen months later the British Parliament enacted the Southern Cameroons Constitution Order in Council, 1960 (SI. 1960 No. 1654) preparatory to independence for the territory;

  • By termination of the trusteeship agreement, Ambazonia (Southern Cameroons under the United Kingdom administration) became de facto independent having inaugurated its own constitution, “the Southern Cameroun Constitution Order-in-Council” with effect from that same 1 October 1960.

  • From 1st of October 1960 to 30th of September 1961 the Southern Cameroons was a fully autonomous, self-governing country poised for independence;

  • The United Nations Charter, Article 76.b, spells out the objectives of trusteeship thus: “To promote the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories and their progressive development towards SELF GOVERNMENT or INDEPENDENCE as may be appropriate to the PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES OF EACH TERRITORY AND ITS PEOPLE……”

  • There are United Nations Articles & Resolutions related to Preparation of Trust Territories towards self-governance and Independence (UN Article 76 (b), UN RES 1514 of DEC 1960, UN RES 224-111);

  • French Cameroun achieved independence on 1st of January 1960 under the name and style of République du Cameroun (La “Republique” du Cameroun) as successor state to French Cameroun Trust Territory, its frontiers inherited from French colonisation becoming frozen on that date;

  • Between 1959 and 1960, Cameroun gave to the United Nations and the people of the Southern Cameroons two critical assurances: (1) that La “Republique” du Cameroun would be prepared to associate with the Southern Cameroons in a confederation of two states, equal in status, if at the United Nations Plebiscite to be conducted in the Southern Cameroons the people expressed the wish “to achieve independence by joining” La “Republique” du Cameroun; and (2) that La “Republique” du Cameroun was  not  an  annexationist  state  and  would  not  colonise  the  Southern  Cameroons;  

  • The United Nations Plebiscite in the Southern Cameroons on 11th of February 1961 unwarrantedly prescribed only two options, independence by leaving out the critical political status option of independence as a separate state ostensibly on the basis of the fiction that the territory was economically non-viable, even though it is trite learning that it is for the people to determine the destiny of the territory and not for the territory to determine the destiny of the people;

  • The public assurances given to the United Nations by La “Republique” du Cameroun  influenced  the  Southern  Cameroons  Plebiscite  vote  in  favour  of ‘independence by joining’ that country rather than ‘independence by joining’ Nigeria;

  • The  term ‘joining’ in  relation  to  Cameroun  Republic  was  clearly understood by that country, the Southern Cameroons, the United Kingdom, and the United Nations to mean political association of the Southern Cameroons and La “Republique” du Cameroun in a federation of two states, equal in status; that is to say, a free association in which the Southern Cameroons would be connected to, but not be part of, La “Republique” du Cameroun;

  • The refusal of La “République” du Cameroun to convene a conference to decide the fate of a UN Trust Territory, and the absence of the UN and UK at the Foumban masquerade in 1961, and the Non-implementation of the UN Post Plebiscite RES 1608(XV) make LRC’s illegality in Ambazonia manifest:

  • 1961 was no Act of Union deposited with the United Nations Secretariat, that violated SC’s international boundaries;

  • Article 20 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights was violated;

  • Article 4(b) of the African Union Constitutive Act which recognizes to AU Member States only the boundaries inherited at independence and noting the current UN mission to the Ambazonia for the purpose of retracing boundaries inherited at independence by each nation;

  • The United Nations overwhelmingly voted in favour of independence for the Southern Cameroons in a separate vote earlier taken on the matter and proceeded to adopt Resolution 1608 (XV) of 21 April 1961 in which it: (i) endorsed the decision of the people of the Southern Cameroons to achieve independence, (ii) decided that the independence of the Southern Cameroons would take effect on 1st of October 1961, and (iii) decided that the Trusteeship Agreement regarding the Southern Cameroons would be terminated on the same 1st of October 1961 upon the finalization, before that date, of arrangements for the implementation of the agreed two-state confederation;

  • British Cameroons (Ambazonia) is documented as having exited the British Empire in 1961 as Independent territory (British Empire Archives);

  • Due to the bad-faith and duplicity of La “Republique” du Cameroun finalization of arrangements for the implementation of the agreed two-state confederation was never done and, as a result, no consensual federal constitution was ever adopted and submitted to the parliaments or peoples of the two countries for approval, and there has never been any legal or political document whatsoever subscribed to by both countries attesting to consensual political association between them;

  • In August and September 1961, La “Republique” du Cameroun violated the territorial  integrity of  the  Southern  Cameroons  when  its  French-commanded troops crossed the frontier into the Southern Cameroons and committed a progrom at Ebubu, perpetrated further killings in Bamenda, destroyed property, and embarked on the implementation of a policy of generalised terrorization in the Southern Cameroons which has known no respite to this day;

  • On the 1st of September 1961 the National Assembly of La “Republique” du Cameroun passed a constitutional amendment law (Loi no. 24/61 du 1 Septembre 1961) deceptively denoted as a federal constitution,

  • In fact that statute was in the nature of an annexation law in that it fraudulently asserted territorial claim to the Southern Cameroons as part of the territory of La “Republique” du Cameroun and falsely claimed that the Southern Cameroons had been returned to La “Republique” du Cameroun by the United Nations and Great Britain;

  • Another objective of the said annexation law by La “Republique” du Cameroun was to suppress and nullify the independence of the Southern Cameroons voted for by its people, endorsed by the United Nations, and declared by the United Nations to take effect on 1st of October 1961, and thus to exhibit the federation as resulting from a domestic act of La “Republique” du Cameroun by which it changed the form of its unitary state to federal in order to facilitate and accommodate part of its territory returned to it;

  • On the 30th of September 1961 the British Government invited a foreign head of state, the President of La “Republique” du Cameroun, to the Southern Cameroons and transferred sovereignty to that country, resulting in the re-colonisation rather than decolonisation of the British Southern Cameroons Trust Territory;

  • For reasons which are too dishonorable for mention, the Administering Authority insisted that Ambazonia whose population is more than that of Gabon, Congo and Equatorial Guinea put together, should be made to join either Nigeria or La Republique du Cameroun, an act which was totally unfair, retrogressive and inconsistent with the letter and spirit of Article 76.b of the United Nations Charter.

  • In order to circumvent this unfair imposition the phrase “achieve independence” was inserted by the United Nations in the two alternatives presented to our people at the Plebiscite of 11 February 1961.

  • If the Ambazonian people had refused to participate in the Plebiscite and boycotted it, Ambazonia would have been automatically recognized as an independent state within the provisions of Article 76.b of the United Nations Charter.

  • Even after the people had voted to have a political link with Cameroun, if the Ambazonian leaders had decided not to implement the Plebiscite as was canvassed by the Honourable P.M. Kale, the United Nations would have no authority to force Ambazonia into any link with Cameroun, since such a link was an invention which went contrary to Article 76.b of the U.N. Charter as it applied to a de facto independent state.

  • A Treaty which is known locally as the Foumban Accord is cited in the United Nations records as INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION, thus emphasizing the fact that the two parties to the Treaty were mutually sovereign states, each having its own government and parliament and that they had thus created a third parliament to which each subscribed members for the purpose of dealing with matters of common interest to the two countries. Since Ambazonians were not Cameroonians, Article 1 paragraph 9 offered Ambazonians the right to Cameroonian citizenship, if their country became the Federated State of West Cameroon under the Treaty.

  • The Inter-Parliamentary Union thus created a union of sovereign states entitling Ambazonia to a seat at the United Nations thus giving full effect to Article 76.b of the U.N. Charter.

  • The opening article of the Foumban Accord Treaty reduced each country into a Federated State (the Republic of Cameroun becoming the East Cameroon, while Ambazonia alias Southern Cameroon becoming the West Cameroon.)

  • Since the functioning of the trusteeship system was the assignment of the General Assembly, the General Assembly of the UN it did not obey its own regulations to properly implement this option and avail Ambazonia alias Southern Cameroon a seat in the United Nations.

  • The Inter-Parliamentary Union became the only link between the two countries and also the only limitation placed on the sovereignty of each of the two countries.

  • The Ahidjo constitution on its own part was rendered illegal and totally invalid ab initio by article 47 of the out stated Federal Constitution which not only forbade any act seeking to transform the Union between the two nations from a Federal to a Unitary one, but also forbade any other method of revising the said constitution except by a law of the federal parliament voted for by a special majority. (A decree DF72-270 of 2/6/72 imposed the Ahidjo Unitary counterfeit and invalid constitution upon the two nations).

  • In June 1972 La “Republique” du Cameroun, again acting unilaterally, abolished the so-called ‘federal republic’ instituted by its annexation law of 1st of September 1961 and replaced it with a counterfeit ‘united republic’, itself also decreed out of existence in February 1984 by a law which revived the hitherto extinct ‘République du Cameroun’ as a distinct and separate legal and political expression but thenceforth    with    expansionist    pretensions; 

  • This colonialism is more invidious because unlike European colonialism which was founded on a forged or extorted document as a treaty of cession of territory signed by local Chiefs and therefore suggesting colonialism by consent, there is not even a forged signed instrument of cession of territory that La “Republique” du Cameroun can exhibit as the basis of its annexation and colonial occupation of the Southern Cameroons;     

  • The untoward effects of the colonization of the Southern Cameroons by La “Republique” du Cameroun include the subjection of our people to cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; the intolerable humiliation and mortification of the dignity of our people as colonial subjects; the equally intolerable debasement of the political status of the Southern Cameroons from an autonomous fully self-governing state to an annexed and Balkanized colonial dependency under the suzerainty of La “Republique” du Cameroun; and the transportation of our country politically, socially, economically, culturally and developmentally backwards by more than sixty years;  

  • The termination of the Trusteeship Agreement relating to our country did not entail the territory’s decolonization but rather its surreptitious colonization by  Cameroun  Republic  as  successor  colonizer;  and  the  1961  Plebiscite vote for consensual federal political association with La “Republique” du Cameroun accordingly lost its effect by operation of the clausula rebus sic stantibus;

  • La “Republique” du Cameroun’s oppression and domination, structural violence and discrimination, armed repression and terrorization, spoliation and plunder, in our country has known no respite since September 1961;

  • Over the years the Ambazonian people have, by the most decent representations and memoranda demanded La “Republique” du Cameroun to end its colonial occupation and its defilement of Ambazonia by its contempt of all virtue and practice of every vice, immoral principles and wicked actions; but these petitions have instead produced more indignities, namely, violence; oppression; repression; pogroms; torture; massive arbitrary arrests; extrajudicial killings; aggressive assimilation policy and practice as an instrument of annihilation; abduction and transportation of our people beyond our borders to La “Republique” du Cameroun where they are paraded in its court-martial for pretended offences and sham trials conducted in French and under French law; imposition of long custodial sentences decided beforehand and imprisonment under life-threatening conditions; all these draconian measures are carried out as part of the official policy of La “Republique” du Cameroun aimed at the total destruction of our people and the disappearance of the Southern Cameroons from the surface of the earth;

  • Taking advantage of this systematic pre meditated dilution of the constitutional fabric of the 1961 Cameroon Confederacy, Biya formalized the breakup of the union by promulgating the Restoration law 84/001 of 4/2/84, and used it to effect the Restoration of the identity of La Republique du Cameroun which had been extinct since 1/10/1961. The restoration of the identity of La Republique du Cameroun in 1984 had the legal effect of automatically restoring the identity of The Southern Cameroons alias Ambazonia as independent state. Cameroun has formalized the restoration of its name from East Cameroun back to La Republique du Cameroun which it was before the Treaty of union.

  • The document The New Social Order on 21 March 1985 formalized the change of the state’s name from West Cameroon to Ambazonia and sought to reassert its sovereignty also, but has not been able to do so because Ambazonia has been illegally occupied by Cameroun.

  • All peaceful efforts made towards restoring the Independence of the Ambazonia since 1985 were ignored: (New Social Order (1985), AAC 1 & II (1993-1994), Washington DC Summit (2001), Minnesota Conference(2004), Dallas Conference (2007), UK Conference, 2007,Abuja Lawsuit (2002), Banjul lawsuit (2003), Geneva lawsuit (2006);

  • In the past fifty-six years La “Republique” du Cameroun has obstinately spurned all calls by eminent persons from within and without, including a call by the African Union for dialogue and a peaceful resolution of the Southern Cameroons Question and another call by the United Nations for La “Republique” du Cameroun to address the root cause of the Southern Cameroons Problem;

  • La “Republique” du Cameroun has pretended not to understand the clear legal and political significance of the framed two separate large maps, one of the Southern Cameroons and the other of La “Republique” du Cameroun, presented to the President of that country in 2010 by the United Nations through the General Assembly President at the time, Dr Ali Triki;

  • In its continuing disregard of the voice of the people of the Southern Cameroons for freedom, peace, liberty, safety, and happiness, La “Republique” du Cameroun continues  to  visit  the  Southern  Cameroons  with  every  species  of  calamity, ically letting loose its uncontrollable trigger-happy forces to commit the most horrid devastations;

  • La “Republique” du Cameroun has enlisted the assistance of ‘dogs of war’ and ‘intellectual mercenaries’ to help it in its genocidal project of procuring the extermination  of  the  people  of  the  Southern  Cameroons  or  at  least  their  reduction to conditions of complete serfdom;

  • The people of the Southern Cameroons have in the past fifty-six years suffered at the hands of La “Republique” du Cameroun a form of colonization, oppression, extreme cruelty, repression and exploitation far more vicious, evil and dehumanizing than anything any African country ever experienced under European colonization;

  • In order to maintain its colonial and exploitative stranglehold over our country, La “Republique” du Cameroun has intensified its obsessional measures aimed at promoting internal convulsion, fission and community factionalism in Ambazonia as well as exciting domestic rivalry and suspicion as part of its policy to destroy us;

  • La “Republique” du Cameroun has also constrained those of our fellow citizens taken captive by its bribes and temporary lure of office and threat of death to sell their country, the Southern Cameroons, for a mess of potage, to turn against it, to deny the right of its people to existence, and to become traitors and executioners of their friends, families and fellow citizens;

  • The moderation, patience and endurance demonstrated by our people have procured no mitigation of the various wrongs and usurpations by La “Republique” du Cameroun, and no hopes remain of obtaining redress by those pacific means alone which have been tried for the past fifty-six long melancholic years;

  • La “Republique” du Cameroun is historically and congenitally addicted to violence, is duplicitous and completely untrustworthy, and, in the conduct of public affairs is politically deceitful and is notorious for duplicity, obfuscation, mendacity, dishonesty, patronage, fraud and corruption;

  • The people of the Ambazonia refuse to interweave their destiny with that of La “Republique” du Cameroun and refuse to entangle their peace, safety and prosperity in the evil and toxic interest of that country;

  • It is irreconcilable to good reason, good conscience, natural law, and the  demands  of  honour  and  human  dignity,  for  the  people  of  Ambazonia to acquiesce in annexation, colonization, and unremitting armed oppression and repression;

  • The people of the Ambazonia have under international law and the law of nature an unquestionable right to assert their independence and statehood, and claim the intangibility of the international boundaries of Ambazonia in conformity with the continuing and inalienable right of self-determination and the international law principle uti possidetis juris;

  • The people of Ambazonia are entitled to sovereignty over all their natural resources;  

  • New York, October 10-1990: The Republic of Ambazonia invoked THE LEGISLATIVE MANDATE IN RESTORATION LAW 84/01 to formally introduce Ambazonia to the world. This happened when the official document dubbed “PROCLAMATION FORMALIZING THE INDEPENDENCE OF AMBAZONIA” was tabled at the United Nations in October 10-1990 and signed by the RoA Head of State Fon Gorji- Dinka. This is the RoA official reminder that following the dissolution of the 1961 Cameroon Confederation, anything thereafter is illegal, unconditional and non binding to the RoA and its people in perpetuity until the sovereign state of The Republic of Ambazonia is in operation! Thereafter, this would be how the Republic of Ambazonia Quest to justify its case for recognition as the sovereign state will be conducted. A very important aspect of this justification process has been the legal victories which are attributed to the Republic of Ambazonia granting it the additional attributes of legitimacy as its JUDICIAL MANDATE!

  • In 1992 as the Bamenda High Court the Judgement called HCB 28/92 became The JUDICIAL MANDATE that exhausted all domestic remedies as can be ever contemplated. HCB28/92 essentially is the judgment passed inside Cameroons’s judicial system that confirmed Cameroon’s recognition of the Republic of Ambazonia.

  • Excerpt of HCB/28/92

BETWEEN: 1. The State of Southern Cameroon alias the Republic of Ambazonia 2. His Royal Excellency Fon Fongum Gorji-Dinka, 3. Blaise S Berinyuy

AGAINST: 1. The State of La Republique du Cameroun 2. His Excellency Paul Biya

ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE

The Defendants to show cause why the following should not become judgment absolute of this Court

if within 5 days of being served defendants fail to enter appearance, or if after entering appearance

he fails to file an affidavit of facts which would enable the Court to either set the orders aside or

vary them:

DECLARATION THAT:

The restoration of the Statehood of the Republic of Ambazonia has been achieved by the Proclamation to this effect signed by Fongum Gorji-Dinka Head of State of the republic of Ambazonia as per annexure 3A

The republic of Cameroon is guilty of aggression by illegally and forcibly occupying the territory of the Republic of Ambazonia

Paul Biya is guilty of (the capital offence) of high treason for furthering the coup d’état of 2 /6/72 by effecting the secession of the Republic of Cameroon on 2/1/84 from the United Republic of Cameroon.

It is reasonable felony for anyone to execute orders or perform any function which derives authority from the Republic of Cameroon or Paul Biya

Public Servants of Ambazonian Origin (civilian and military) are discharged of the duty allegiance,

obedience or loyalty which they owed to the Republic of Cameroon and Paul Biya; so they are

henceforth answerable to the republic of Ambazonia and its Head of State Fongum Gorji-Dinka

AN ORDER:

Prohibiting persons elected in Parliamentary Elections from constituencies in the Republic of

Ambazonia from attending personally or by proxy the National Assembly of the Republic of

Cameroon.

Expelling from the territory of the Republic of Ambazonia all persons whose presence or duties in

Ambazonia derive authority from the Republic of Cameroon, Paul Biya or any government based in

Yaounde. Since the defendants failed to even enter appearance within 5 days or at all, the process

which the High Court registrar signed, stamped, and issued as HCB/28/92 automatically became the

judgment absolute of the High Court without a judge having to copy it in the Courts own Book. So the judgment HCB/28/92 is therefore only in the files of the parties and of those of the Bamenda

High Court Registry.

  • The English speaking people of Ambazonia can not be as they have never been Cameroonians! This declarative statement of principle is what the world needs to see emanate from all Ambazonian polity in order to received the requisite recognition from sovereign states.

  • The people of Ambazonia  in their ad hoc All Anglophone Conference  assembled  in  1994  solemnly  resolved  that  on  the  expiry  of  a ‘reasonable time’ and upon the continuing stubborn refusal by La “Republique” du Cameroun to end its  annexation, colonial occupation, exploitation, oppression, domination, and massive human rights abuses, conditions exist for the Southern Cameroons to invoke its inalienable right of self-determination as a remedy of last resort and to come into being as a sovereign independent State;

  • In a Signature Referendum conducted by the Southern Cameroons National Council in 1995, the people of Ambazonia again overwhelmingly  pronounced  themselves  in  favour  of  asserting  the  sovereign statehood of the Southern Cameroons, thereby reiterating the 11th of February 1961 Independence vote;

  • The eternal law of self-preservation dictates that the Southern Cameroons unites and exerts the strength of its people for self-defence action and other  forms  of  cooperation  for  humanitarian  intervention  in Ambazonia;     

  • It is imperative that the exercise in Ambazonia of every kind of authority under La “Republique” du Cameroun should be totally suppressed and that all the powers of government should be exerted under the authority of the people of Ambazonia for the revival, preservation and promotion of freedom, virtue, order, internal and international peace, and for the defence of life, liberty, and property, against the hostile invasions and cruel depredation of La “Republique” du Cameroun;

  • Faced with the on-going state of extreme danger, the Ambazonian liberation movements united in a broad-based common Front (viz. the Southern Cameroons/Ambazonia Consortium United Front - SCACUF), representing the people of Ambazonia and reflecting the will of the overwhelming majority of them, are left with no other alternative than to take all appropriate action warranted by  the circumstances in the best and supreme interest of the good people of Ambazonia;

  • In the facts and circumstances of the annexation and colonial occupation of Ambazonia by La “Republique” du Cameroun, the liberation movements  of  Ambazonia,  united  in  a  common  Front,  and representing the eight million people of Ambazonia rightfully in revolt against annexation, colonial occupation and brutal armed repression by La “Republique” du Cameroun, in fulfilment of the inalienable right of self-determination and the natural law of self-preservation, and in due reflection of the will of the Southern Cameroons nation overwhelmingly expressed at the 1961 Plebiscite and reiterated in the 1995 Signature Referendum

  • adopts this day basic measures restoring and safeguarding the independence of Ambazonia unlawfully suppressed by La “Republique” du Cameroun, and  

  • calls upon the people of the Southern Cameroons to defend by any means their humanity and dignity, their very survival and existence as a people, and the integrity and honour of their families and Homeland;

  • 2001-2010 is United Nations decade of decolonization and the Ambazonia is still being annexed and recolonized by another African Former UN Trust territory of the same Category B status;

  • ACHPR on Communication 266/2003 on the Ambazonia self-determination question and underlining the determination of Ambazonia to obtain their independence whichever way the ACHPR rules;

  • Paragraph 178 of the African Commission of Human and Peoples Rights by which Ruling the Commission finds that “the people of Southern Cameroon” (Ambazonians) qualify to be referred to as a “people” because they manifest numerous characteristics and affinities, which include a common history, linguistic tradition, territorial connection, and political outlook. More importantly, they identify themselves as a people with a separate and distinct identity. Identity is an innate characteristic within a people. It is up to other external people to recognize such existence, but not to deny it”.

  • The recognition of Ambazonia as a People, automatically confers on them all the rights embodied in the African Charter, including the inalienable and unquestionable right to self-determination and resistance to foreign domination as provided for in Article 20 (1), (2) and (3).

  • November 24th-25th, 2007 International Meeting In Johannesburg South Africa, which re-asserted the inalienable rights of citizens of Ambazonia to self-determination and their political past as a self-governing entity duly recognized by the United Nations between 1954-1961;

  • Instituting the Ambazonia Restoration Government on November  25th, 2007;

  • The declaration of the former UN Secretary General, H.E. Kofi Annan in AD 2000 calling for dialogue between the People of the Ambazonia and the occupying government of La Republique du Cameroun, which stance has been spitefully ignored by la Republique despite multiple overtures from the People of Ambazonia;

  • Many US Congressional Hearings and Resolutions on the Southern Cameroons National Council and the British Southern Cameroons;

  • UN, AU, UNHCR, Amnesty International Hearings and Resolutions directly concerning or touching on the Ambazonia and its liberation movements;

  • European Union, individual African, European and worldwide governments Declarations and Resolutions on the British Southern Cameroons (Ambazonia);

  • UNPO Processes and Resolutions on the British Southern Cameroons (Ambazonia);

  • The unleashing by La “Republique” du Cameroun of massive brutal military repression,   state   terrorism,  and  persecution  en  masse  in,  and  increased militarisation of Ambazonia since October 2016 has made it impossible for the people of Ambazonia to congregate and elect a constituent assembly to frame a constitution and set up a government in the Southern Cameroons, and that these dire circumstances make it imperative and expedient for the will and wish of the people to find expression through some other appropriate and legitimate form

  • The People of Ambazonia declared the independence of the Federal Republic of Ambazonia on 1st of Oct 2017 in reflection of the formal, definitive and irreversible Restoration of Independence voted for by the Southern Cameroons on 11th February 1961, endorsed by United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 1608 (XV) of 21st of April 1961, and reiterated in the 1995 Signature Referendum.

  • This Declaration was in full accordance with  

  • the United Nations Charter, Articles 1(2) and 76 b;  

  • the United Nations Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, UNGA Res 1514 (XV) of 14th of December 1960, numbered paragraphs 1 to 5; 

  • Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, UNGA Res 2625 (XXV) of 24th of October 1970, fifth principle;  

  • the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, paragraph 3 of preamble, Articles 19 and 20;

  • the Constitutive Act of the African Union, Article 4 b;

  • the OAU Cairo Declaration, 1964; and  

  • common Article 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;

  • The Ambazonian Interim Government deems it necessary to apply for full membership not only of the United Nations, the African Union, the Commonwealth and other international organisations but also of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), these being fora in which Ambazonia shall seek to contribute to the pursuit of international peace and stability;

  • The Ambazonian Interim Government acknowledges that the frontiers of the Federal Republic of Ambazonia have always been, and will continue to be, as defined, delimited and/or demarcated in the relevant sections of the following instruments:

  • As regards its frontiers with Nigeria to the west and north:  

  • sections IX-XXX of the Agreement between Great Britain and Germany

  • Respecting the Settlement of the Frontier between Nigeria and the Cameroons from Yola to the Sea, signed at London, 11 March 1913 (106 B.F.S.P. 782);

  • the maritime boundary in Bakassi from the thalweg of the Akwayafe River

  • down into the sea as specified definitively by the International Court of Justice in Case Concerning the Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v Nigeria: Equatorial Guinea Intervening), ICJ Judgment of 10 October 2002;

  • sections  11-21  of  the  Agreement  Concerning  the  Demarcation  of  the Anglo-German Boundary between Nigeria and the Cameroons from Yola to he Cross River, signed at Obokum, 12 April 1913 (I.B.S. No. 92 – Revised, p. 19); the Agreement between Great Britain and Germany respecting Navigation on the Cross River, London, 11 March 1913 (106 B.F.S.P. 782);

  • the Second Schedule to the British Order in Council providing for the

  • administration of the Nigeria Protectorate and the Cameroons under British Mandate, London, 2 August 1946 (146 B.F.S.P. 298);

  • As regards its frontiers with La “Republique” du Cameroun to the east:  

  • sections 23-41 of the Franco-British Declaration respecting the Frontier between the British Cameroons and French Cameroun, London, 10 July

  • 1919 (134 B.F.S.P. 238; U.K.T.S. No. 34 (1931); and sections 65-138 of the Declaration made by the Governor of the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria and the Governor of the French Cameroun

  • determining the Frontier between British Cameroons and French Cameroun, London, 9 January 1931 (U.K.T.S. No. 34 (1931); 134 B.F.S.P. 238).

  • The Federal Republic of Ambazonia declared that Ambazonia shall establish good relations with all its neighbours, including, subsequently, even with La “Republique” du Cameroun in spite of the horrific experiences with that country;

  • Today the Republic of Ambazonia is the outcome of the failed 1961‗inter-parliamentary‘ union between the now extinct states of Southern Cameroons and the Republic of Cameroun, and  should  be  operating,  if  the  Southern  Cameroon  is  not  to  be considered a ‗re-colonized territory by Cameroun.

  • International law recognizes the right of the people of Ambazonia to form a government-in-exile.

  • Capital Heights Conference in Maryland in January 2017 …

  • All Ambazonian independence movements came together in the Hagerstown Conference in Maryland, USA, on 11th of February 2017 to confirm the name and independence of Ambazonia and …

  • Resolution of the All-Ambazonian-Congress in Maryland on Feb 10th 2018 …

Here is a summary document by the Republic of Ambazonia:

 

 THE REPUBLIC OF AMBAZONIA

~UNITED NATIONS TRUST TERRITORY OF THE SOUTHERN CAMEROONS UNDER UNITED KINGDOM (UK ) ADMINISTRATION, 1946-1961;

~LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATED TERRITORY UNDER UK ADMINISTRATION, 1922-1945;

~BRITISH CAPTURED TERRITORY AFTER THE DEFEAT OF GERMANY IN WORLD WAR I, 1916-1922;

~AMBAS BAY COLONY, FOUNDED BY ALFRED SAKAR WITH CAPITAL AS VICTORIA, FIRST WESPHALIA STATE IN THE GULF OF GUINEA, 1843-1884.

…………………………………………………………………….

Legal instruments that have been interpreted and codified into laws or have passed through legal processes which Ambazonia is basing her arguments on, to restore her sovereignty and independence.

1.1. Restoration law 84/01 in 1984. That the Lord God who is the father of orphans and the strength of the weak made Cameroun President Paul Biya enact Restoration law 84/01 in 1984 dissolving the illegal union “Federal United Republic of Cameroon” which was formed between Republic of Cameroun (East Cameroon) and the former Southern British Cameroons (West Cameroon) which was first called Federal Republic of Cameroun and later called United Republic of Cameroun until 1984.

With the promulgation of the Restoration Law, Elites of the Former British Southern Cameroons in what became known as the Ambazonian Restoration Council (ARC) came up three documents in succession with the first document The New Social Order of 20 March 1984 on page 8, second to the last paragraph, baptised the name AMBAZONIA to differentiate and protect the SOVEREIGNTY of former British Southern Cameroons that had independence on the 1st October 1961, from that of Republic of Cameroon that had her own independence on 1st January 1960.

1.2. Cameroun Military Tribunal (CMT) of 1985: That when the first president of the Cameroun Bar Association Fon Gorji-Dinka wrote in The New Social Order of 20 March 1985 calling on President Byia to withdraw from Ambazonia in compliance with the law 84/01, which it legal interpretation is the dissolution of the union between the two sovereign states West and East Cameroon. President Biya arrested him and charged him before Cameroun Military Tribunal (CMT) with high treason punishable with death. CMT in a judicial hearing of the case, discharged and acquitted Fon Gorji-Dinka thereby giving the legal interpretation and codifying in domestic law that the Law 84/01, has dissolved the union.

1.3. Bamenda High Court HCB/28/92: That in 1992 Bamenda High Court declared that, Cameroun occupation of Ambazonia is illegal and constitutes an act of continuing aggression given that Ambazonia was a sovereign nation that had her independence on 1st October 1961 following United Nations Resolution 1608XV of 21 April 1961; and then ordered all elements of Cameroun to withdraw from Ambazonia. Read full details in Page 2 of 5

1.4. International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the 10th October 2002: in her judgement paragraph 225 “the Court accordingly concludes that the boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria in Bakassi is delimited by Articles XVIII to XX of the Anglo-German Agreement of 11 March 1913, and that sovereignty over the peninsula lies with Cameroon”, and ordered both countries to withdraw right back to their territorial boundaries as obtained at independence. In this light the Republic of Cameroon had never had any physical boundary with Nigeria in the Bakassi area, but the former UN Trust Territory of British Southern Cameroons (Ambazonia) which is confirmed in the Anglo-German Agreement above.

1.5. The United Nations Human Rights Committee (International Covenant on Civil and political Rights) CCPR/C/83/D/1134/2002 in 2005 ruled in paragraph 7 page 11, that Fon Dinka is entitled to an effective remedy, including compensation and assurance of the enjoyment of his civil and political rights. And that Cameroon is also under an obligation to take measures to prevent similar violations in the future. Gorji-Dinka says he is not Cameroonian but Ambazonian. So, for him to enjoy his political and civil right Cameroon must end the occupation of Ambazonia.

Paragraph 2.5 page 5 states: As a result of the “subjugation” of Ambazonians, whose human rights were allegedly severely violated by members of the Franco-Cameroonian armed forces as well as militia groups, riots broke out in 1983, prompting Parliament to enact Restoration Law 84/01, which dissolved the union of the two countries. The author then became head of the “Ambazonian Restoration Council” and published several articles, which called on President Paul Biya of the Republic of Cameroon to comply with the Restoration Law and to withdraw from Ambazonia.

1.6. United Nations Bakassi Accord: That in pursuance of the ICJ judgment the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan on the 31st January 2005, flew to Cameroun and made President Biya sign the treaty now called United Nations Bakassi Accord saying “I President Paul Biya of the Republic of Cameroon, in a bid to provide lasting peace to the Bakassi conflict, do hereby commit myself and my government to respect territorial boundaries of my country as obtained at its independence." The accord has not been made public by the UN but news about it is contained in Press Release SG/T/2434 of 01/02/2005.

1.6.1 That in pursuance of that Agreement and ICJ Judgement, UN surveyors went to Cameroon and rebuilt huge pillars along the international boundary line separating Cameroon and Nigeria from Ambazonia. This means International law and the United Nations recognises a Sovereign Nation (Ambazonia) between Republic of Cameroon and Federal Republic of Nigeria.

1.7. On 20 May 2010 (Cameroun National Day), the President of the UN General Assembly, Dr. Ali Abdussalam Treki presented a gift of two giant framed maps to Paul Biya. One of the maps is clearly that of Republic of Cameroun (French Cameroun) that had independence on 1st January 1960 and British Cameroons, while the second map is that of British Cameroons clearly demarcating Southern & Northern British Cameroons. This dramatized action by an international law making body give legal precedent in law.

1.8. In 2013 the Republic of Ambazonia got judgement in her favor from the Abuja Federal High Court of suit FHC/ABJ/CS/526/2013 which state among other things:

1.8.1. A declaration that the Special Regime which illegally put the plaintiffs' Bakassi Peninsula under control of Cameroon, was null and void ab initio, on the grounds that it was created by the 12 June 2006 agreement concluded by signatories who lacked locus standi. Page 3 of 5

1.8.2. An order that the 1st defendant should cause all persons and logistics brought unto the Bakassi Peninsula under that Special Regime to be removed; and should deliver vacant possession of the said Peninsula to the plaintiffs.

1.8.3. An order that the 1st Defendant should ensure that Cameroon withdraws without condition, to its territorial boundaries at its independence on 1 January 1960, in compliance with the judgment of the International Court of Justice, in pursuance of which the United Nations obtained a commitment from the Cameroon President to comply saying "President Paul Biya of the Republic of Cameroon in a bid to provide lasting peace to the Bakassi conflict hereby commit myself and my government to respect the territorial boundaries of my country as obtained at its independence"

1.9. UN Charter Article 2: That since the UN Charter Article 2 paragraph 4 forbids UN Member States from acting in any way to jeopardise the political independence of another State, Cameroun is violating: (a) UN Charter Article 2 by treating Ambazonia as part of Cameroun, and (b) that any other country that treats Ambazonia as part of Cameroun is violating the UN Charter article 2.

1.10. Under Article 51 of the UN Charter the victim of aggression is entitled to use force to terminate the aggressions.

1.11. Article 4 (b) of the African Union Constitutive Act stipulates that member states should respect borders existing on achievement of independence. We all know that Republic of Cameroon and Ambazonia have internationally recognized boundaries, which makes impossible for Cameroon to defend that charge of extending her power beyond her boundaries at independence.

 

Historical Legal Processes that Republic of Cameroon cannot counter, to justify her Occupation of Ambazonia

2.1 Mindful of the fact that, France signed on the 13th December 1946, a separate United Nations International Trusteeship Agreement Treaty Series No: 66 of 1947 for the French Cameroon, and on the other hand, United Kingdom on the same 13th December 1946 signed a separate United Nations International Trusteeship Agreement Treaty Series No 20 of 1947, as well for the British Cameroons, -- which were to lead both trust territory to complete independence. For that reason Cameroon cannot have her own independence and sovereignty, and turn to stop former Southern British Cameroon for enjoying the same right under UN Article 76b.

2.2. Mindful of Letter dated 13 January 1960 from Mr. Ahmadou Ahidjo, Prime Minister of the State of Cameroon addressed to the Secretary-General (S/4256); applying for admission of the Republic of Cameroon into UN Membership under United Nations Article 4, was without Ambazonia;

2.2.1 Mindful of Letter dated 20 January 1960 from the Permanent Representative of France addressed to the President of the UN Security Council (S/4257), recommending the admission of Cameroon into UN Membership under United Nations Article 4, was without Ambazonia;

2.2.2. Mindful of the fact that, UN Security Council in Resolution 133 of 26 January 1960 recommends to the United Nations General Assembly that the Republic of Cameroon be admitted to membership in the United Nations. (S/4258) --which was without the former Southern British Cameroons (Ambazonia) that had not yet achieved independence; Page 4 of 5

2.2.3. Mindful of the fact that, United Nations General Assembly at it 864th Plenary Meeting of 20th September 1960, in Resolution 1476 (XV), admitted by acclamation the Republic of Cameroon to membership in the United Nations --- while the UN Trust Territory of Southern British Cameroons had not yet achieved her own independence;

2.2.4. Mindful of the international Treaty No. 5354, Republic of Cameroon’s declaration of acceptance of the obligations contained in the Charter of the United Nations, in her letter from Yaounde, 13 January 1960, registered at the United Nations under UN Article 102, was without Ambazonia;

2.3 Mindful of the fact that, the can never be any part of Republic of Cameroon outside the boundary of Republic of Cameroon as at her date of independence on 1st January 1960;

2.4. Mindful of UNGA acknowledgement of the statement of Mr. Ahmadou Ahidjo, the Prime of Cameroun in UN document A/C A/397 of 25th February 1959, during the UNGA 994 Plenary Meeting vote on Resolution 1608XV of 21 April 1961, in which on page 11, paragraph 2, 3 and 4 amongst others things states that “We do not wish to bring the weight of our population to bear on our British brothers --We are not annexationists. In other words, if our brothers of the British zone wish to unite with an independent Cameroons, we are ready to discuss the matter with them, but we will discuss it on a footing of equality”;

2.5. Mindful of the fact that, Note Verbale No. F.M. 68 (1041/60) dated 16th December I960, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cameroun approval to the British Embassy to Cameroun at Yaounde that that, in connection with the plebiscite to be organized in the Southern British Cameroons on the question of whether that country should join the Federation of Nigeria or the Republic of Cameroun, the Government of the Republic of Cameroun has announced that it adheres to the spirit of the attached joint communiques, which indicate its desire for unification with the Cameroons under British Administration on the basis of a Federation. "The Government of the Republic of Cameroon requests the British Embassy to consider the attached communiques as an expression of the official views of the Republic, and further requests that they be published for the purposes prescribed by UN Trusteeship Council Resolution 2013 (XXVI);

2.5.1 Mindful of the fact that the official negotiation records are contain in United Nations document T/1556 of 3rd April 1961, paragraph 48 to 82 of United Nations Plebiscite Commissioner Report.

2.5.2. Mindful of the fact that, the original negotiations records states among other things that the supposed union was to be styled “FEDERAL UNITED KAMEROUN REPUBLIC” (which is a CONFEDERACY, meaning a (union of two or more sovereignty and independent states) which was never followed through but at the last minute was substituted for “Federal United Cameroon Republic” and at its implementation, it was completely abandoned in favour of a Federal Republic of Cameroon, later United Republic Cameroon, and then back to the original Republic of Cameroon that had her independence on 1st January 1960;

2.5.3. Mindful of the fact that negotiations concluded with the international treaty under United Nations watch called Plebiscite Pact, which the UN used as the Two Alternative question in the United Nations supervised Plebiscite of 11th February of 1961, in the Trust Territory of the Southern British Cameroons aka Ambazonia;

2.5.4. Mindful of the fact that, the publication of the terms of Plebiscite Pact recalled its legal route from the UNGA Resolution 1354 (XIV) of 16 October 1959 and Trusteeship Council Page 5 of 5

Resolution 2013 (XXVI) of 31 May I960 and stated that it had been prepared in pursuance of the Trusteeship Council's request for the purpose of explaining to the public of the British Southern Cameroons the constitutional implications of the two choices. ---explanation for voting in favor of the Federation of Nigeria or voting in favor of the Republic of Cameroon;

2.5.5. Mindful of the fact that the Plebiscite Pact offered by Independent Cameroun states amongst other things that, Federal United Cameroon Republic will have exclusive competence in 8 Subject Matters as follows “Public freedoms, Nationality, National Defence, Foreign Affairs, Higher Education, Immigration and emigration, Federal Budget and Posts and Telecommunications”;

2.5.6. Mindful of the fact that we the people of former Southern British Cameroons now Ambazonians, were offered Cameroonian Nationality by the already independent Cameroun, if and only if we voted in favour to be in a “Federal United Cameroons Republics” as stated the United Nations Plebiscite Pact, which our people voted on, in the Plebiscite of 11th February 1961;

2.6. Mindful that Sir Andrew COHEN (United Kingdom), in paragraph 170 of UNGA 994th Plenary Meeting of 21 April 1961, quoted paragraph 79 - 82 of the report of the United Nations Plebiscite Commissioner that the Foreign Affairs Ministry of Cameroun in Note Verbale No. F.M. 68 (1041/60) dated 16 December 1960, indicate its desire for unification with the Cameroons under British administration on the basis of a Federation, and requested it be published for the purposes prescribed by Trusteeship Council Resolution 2013 (XXVI)

2.7. Mindful of the fact that United Nations General Assembly Voted 64 for, 23 against and 10 abstention, for the independence and sovereignty of British Southern Cameroons (Ambazonia) to take effect from 1st October 1961 in UNGA Resolution 1608XV of 21 April 1961;

2.8. Considering that the United Nations International Law Commission (ILC) has legally interpreted and codified in chambers, the work of UNGA on Resolution 1608XV of 21 April 1961 as international law which in paragraph 4b states that on 1st October 1961 the Trust Territory of former Southern British Cameroons had independence and sovereignty as voted by the UNGA, as international legal precedent;

2.9. Noting that on the 17th of October 1961, the Queen's Speech on the Prorogation of Parliament in paragraph 11, state that following on a plebiscite held last February United Kingdom Trusteeship in the Cameroons has been terminated. The Northern part has joined Nigeria and the Southern part has united in a Federation with the Cameroun Republic.

2.10. Mindful of the fact that, by United Republic of Cameroon Law 84/01 of 1984, it has completely wiped out any sign or symbol of the United Nations Plebiscite Pact terms that created the “Federal United Cameroons Republic” that gave us Cameroonian identity;

 

Compiled 4th August 2017 by

Edwin Ngang

Dr. Lawrence Ebia Ngoh

Mudoh Amos Nsuna

BOUNDARY TREATY BETWEEN THE BRITISH SOUTHERN CAMEROONS AND LA REPUBLIQUE DU CAMEROUN 
Dated 9 January 1931   (Treaty Series No. 34 (1931) [Cmd. 3936])  pdf below

Ambazonia has got an Interim Government which appointed a new cabinet on June 30th 2018, but its members listed below are not the only representatives of the Ambazonian people, because there are other important revolutionary groups, like SCYL, AGC, MoRISC, SCAPO, CONSORTIUM, RoA etc., and 11 leading IG members had been abducted by Nigeria and illegally extradited to Cameroon, where they were put into prison. Nevertheless all Ambazonian groups stand behind independence of Ambazonia from French Cameroun and behind a strong homeland defense against all neocolonizers. 

 

Interim President: Sisiku Julius Tabe

Acting Interim President: Dr. Samuel Saku

Interim Vice President: Dr. Hariscine Abongwa

Dep. Of Home Affairs and Community Mobilization: Secretary of State: Ambrose A. Etenjeh

                                                                               Undersecretary of State: Dabney Yerima

Judicial Council: Chairman Barrister Ndeh Fidelis

Department of Education and Strategic Collaboration / SoS: Leo Chem 

                                                                                             USoS: Robert Fondi

Department of Economy and Finance / SoS: Brado Etchu Tabenyang

                                                                 USoS: Mathias Taszok

Director of the Treasury: Richard Tangu

Department of the Homeland Security / SoS: John Egyawang

                                                                  USoS: ----

Department of Health and Social Services / SoS: Caleche Mbongo

                                                                       USoS: Dr. Santos Nicolas

Department of Foreign Affairs / SoS: Dr. Logan Elad Kizito

                                                    USoS: Dr. Ngeh J. Toyang

Department of Communications / SoS: Christopher Anu

                                                        USoS: Emma Larry (Cucu)

Ethics Commission:  Chairman: Francis Shey

                                       Deputy: Dr. Patience Abiedu

Presidential Advisory Committee / Senior Advisors:

                                          Prof. Carlson Anyangwe (Law and Diplomacy and Chairman),

                                          Ambassador Henry Fossung (Diplomacy and Mediation),

                                          George Achu (Administration)

                                          Justice Ebong Alobwede (Political Outreach)

                                          Mola Njoh Litumbe (Political Outreach)

                                          Nancy Asanga (Mediation)

                                          Victor N. Mbah Rev. (Spiritual Affairs):

Chief of Staff at the Presidency: Prof. Martin Ayim and Metuge Ekomenzoge (PPMB)

Department of Statistics and State Archives: Director Mat Atungong

Director of Presidential Security: Allain Kohila

                        Deputy / Training: Sheriff Asongue

Director of Judicial Affairs: Barrister Timothy Mbeseah

Executive Assistant to the President: Sebastain Mbarikuh

Department of Resource Mobilization: Direktor Irene Ngwa

Special Duties at the Presidency: Director Tatah Johnson

Communications at the Presidency / Press Secretary: Comfort Konfor

Publications Director: Elizabeth Tumah

Webmaster: Willy Munji

Diplomatic Missions:

Ambassador to the AU: Goddy Nti

Ambassador to the United Nations: Daniel Tekoh

Ambassador to the European Union: Dabney Yerima

Ambassador to ECOWAS: Prince Akere Divine

Ambassador to the Commonwealth: Louis Mbuah Likenje

Ambassador to the Organization of American States: Eyembe Elango

Ambassador for Asia / Pacific: Tangie Donatus Muma

Ambassador to the Francophonie: Francis Awudu

The World's Newest Countries Since 1990

 

Updated March 26, 2018

 

Since the year 1990, 35 new countries have either restored their Independence or been created. The dissolution of the USSR and Yugoslavia in the early 1990s lead to the restoration or creation of most of the newly independent states. You probably know about many of these changes, but a few of these new countries seem to slip by almost unnoticed. This comprehensive listing will update you about the countries that have restored or formed since.

 

*Union of Soviet Socialist Republics*

Fifteen new countries have been restored or became independent with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Most of these countries declared or restored their independence a few months preceding the fall of the Soviet Union in late 1991:

 

1. Armenia

2. Azerbaijan

3. Belarus

4. Estonia

5. Georgia

6. Kazakhstan

7. Kyrgyzstan

8. Latvia

9. Lithuania

10. Moldova

11. Russia

12. Tajikistan

13. Turkmenistan

14. Ukraine

15. Uzbekistan

 

*Former Yugoslavia*

Yugoslavia dissolved in the early 1990s into five independent countries:

 

1. June 25, 1991

Croatia and Slovenia

 

3. September 8, 1991

Macedonia (officially The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) declared independence on this date, but wasn't recognized by the United Nations until 1993 and the United States and Russia in February of 1994.

 

4. February 29, 1992

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

5. April 17, 1992

Serbia and Montenegro, also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. 

 

*Other New Countries*

Fourteen other countries became independent or restored their independence through a variety of circumstances.

 

1. March 21, 1990

Namibia became independent of South Africa. Previously, Namibia was known as South West Africa when it was a German territory.

 

2. May 22, 1990

North and South Yemen merged to form a unified Yemen.

 

3. October 3, 1990

East Germany and West Germany merged to form a unified Germany after the fall of the Iron Curtain.

 

4. September 17, 1991

The Marshall Islands was part of the Trust Territory of Pacific Islands (administered by the United States) and gained independence as a former colony. On this date, Micronesia, previously known as the Caroline Islands, also became independent from the United States.

 

5. January 1, 1993

The Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent nations when Czechoslovakia dissolved.

 

6. May 25, 1993

Eritrea which had been annexed by Ethiopia on 15th November 1962 after the dissolution of the Federal Union, gained independence and later on became a member of the United Nations.

 

7. October 1, 1994

Palau was part of the Trust Territory of Pacific Islands (administered by the United States) and gained independence as a former colony.

 

*8. May 20, 2002*

*East Timor (Timor-Leste) declared independence from Portugal in 1975 but did not become independent from Indonesia until 2002.*

 

9. June 3, 2006

Montenegro was part of Serbia and Montenegro (also known as Yugoslavia) but gained independence after a referendum. Two days later, Serbia became its own entity after Montenegro split.

 

10. February 17, 2008

Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia. The representatives of the Kosovo people unanimously agreed the country would be independent of​ Serbia despite eleven of the Serbia minority boycotting this. 

 

11. July 9, 2011

South Sudan peacefully seperated from Sudan following a January 2011 referendum. Sudan itself was the first to recognize South Sudan and did so one day early.

 

*12. October 1, 2017*

*Southern Cameroons restored her independence voted for by UNGA Resolution 1608 (XV) of April 21st, 1961 and created The Federal Republic of Ambazonia. The country is still to be fully recognized by the United Nations.*

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